W. Edwards Deming (1900-93) and Joseph Juran (1904-2008)
Deming (pictured right) and Juran taught the Japanese about quality improvement in the 1950’s.
Deming’s key book
Out of the Crisis
(see for more detail Out of the Crisis in the
Business Books section)
Transforming an organization’s quality and competitiveness requires understanding and applying 14 points:
1. Customer driven
Constantly striving to satisfy present and future customers’ needs.
The organization must value its employees and their need for job satisfaction and self-fulfilment.
Replace inspection by incorporating quality into the production process
This is helped by self-managing work groups responsible for quality improvement – “QC
[quality control] circles” (now known as quality circles).
4. Cost minimization
But create a long-term relationship with a single supplier for any one item, and don’t give
business on price alone.
Constantly improve quality, productivity and the production or customer service system.
Encourage training on the job.
Leaders should give their long-term commitment to quality and continually help people and
their machinery do a better job through:
- creating job satisfaction.
- removing the causes of failure.
- ensuring consistency of performance.
8. Drive out
(in the hearts of employees).
Break down barriers between departments, so that people work as a team
So teams (not individuals) must be rewarded for good performance .
10. Eliminate slogans,
exhortations and employee targets (like zero defects)
Because most causes of poor quality are in the production system and not in employees’ control.
11. Avoid numerical goals for
managers and employees
Replace them with effective leadership.
12. Pride of
Emphasizing the quality and fulfilment of work.
- education (e.g. in statistical quality control methods).
14. Quality is everybody’s
Every employee must work to achieve it, not just the quality control department.
The Shewhart cycle (now sometimes called the Deming cycle) is useful
Key quotes on
Inspection is too late.
Top management should publish a resolution that no one will lose his job for contribution to quality and
Key quotes on customers and
The customer is the most important part of the production line.
Profit in business comes from repeat customers, customers that boast about your product or service, and that
bring friends with them.
right) key book
Juran on Planning for Quality
The best quality requires the “Juran Trilogy”:
1. Quality planning
Setting objectives and strategies.
Comparing quality objectives with actual results.
improvement (from empowerment)
Empowerment (giving employees responsibility for quality) is achieved through:
- involvement in decisions about quality (particularly in teams).
Key quote on
Fitness for use (Juran’s definition of quality).