Rensis Likert (1903-81)
American professor and expert in employee behaviour (pictured right).
New Patterns of Management
There are four types of management:
System 1 (exploitive authoritative)
Autocratic and coercive (using fear and threats).
- can achieve high productivity (particularly supported by tight controls).
- makes employee relations worse leading to people leaving and
poor quality work.
System 2 (benevolent authoritative)
Autocratic and persuasive (via rewards).
System 3 (consultative)
Limited employee involvement in decision making.
System 4 (participative group management)
- Total involvement by groups in making decisions
- Performance driven managers responding to employees’ needs and expectations.
System 4 delivers the
- best relations between management and employees.
Authoritarian organizations tend to develop dependent people and few
New Ways of Managing Conflict (1976),
written with his wife, Jane
System 5 management is System 4 without hierarchical authority.
This will become increasingly important, because performance and competitiveness depend on: